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Concrete Pile 




General Offices 

135 Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois 

New York Office, 71 Nassau Street 

'TT'HE Raymond Systems of Con- 

A crete Piling are fully protected 
by Letters Patent of the United States 
and of all the principal foreign coun- 
tries. Any infringements will be 
prosecuted to the fullest extent of the 

The Raymond System of 
Concrete Piling. 

The introduction of concrete piles marked a new era in 
foundation construction. No argument was needed to con- 
vince the thorough Engineer that a practical system of concrete 
piling, which could be depended upon for durability and 
strength, and at a cost much less than that of caissons, would 
have a wide field of usefulness. 

The first and only practical system to be tested in this 
country was invented by Mr. A. A. Raymond, and was demon- 
strated in April, 1901. The first actual work was performed in 
June of the same year and justified all the claims made by the 
inventor. Since that time the Raymond System has forged 
ahead, reaching new fields and making friends everywhere in 
the engineering world. 

Every Engineer and Architect who has carefully studied the 
subject has recognized the value and superiority of Raymond 
piles. Those who have had occasion to use them speak unhesi- 
tatingly in their favor. We are pleased to refer to any and all 
who have used the system, knowing full well that only satis- 
factory and efficient work has been performed. 

Since the previous edition of our catalogue was published 
many thousand Raymond piles have been placed by the Com- 
pany and its representatives, and the work has been distributed 
over the greater part of the United States. Many new and 
difficult conditions have been encountered, but in every case 
the work has been accomplished with entire success. 

The great success of Raymond piles is due to the correct- 
ness of the fundamental principle upon which these piles are 
based: "A shell or form for every pile." It has been dem- 
onstrated beyond a reasonable doubt that to be certain of a 
perfect concrete pile under any and all conditions, there must 
be a form which remains in the ground and protects the con 
crete until it has firmly set. In the Raymond System this form 
is of a size and shape best suited to secure the greatest possible 
bearing value. The form (which is of sheet steel) is driven by 
means of a collapsible steel core until it is practically impos- 
sible to secure further penetration. The core is then with- 
drawn, leaving the shell (which is of sufficient strength to re- 
tain its size and shape as driven ) in the ground to act as a 
mould for the concrete. The shell is inspected and rilled with 
thoroughly mixed Portland cement concrete, which is care- 
fully tamped in the shell as it is filled. (See page E 

We feel that we cannot too strongly urge the importance 
of this protecting form. in some isolated instances a 

perfect pile could be obtained without the use of a form. But 
in ninety per cent, of the cases whevt concrete piles are needed, 
a form is absolutely essential to complete success. 

Our facilities for handling work have been and are con- 
stantly being increased by the addition of new equipment, 
which is widely distributed throughout the United States, and 
we are, therefore, in a position to handle work at any point 
promptly and satisfactorily. 

We invite a careful study of the details of our system as 
shown in this catalogue, of the demonstrations of the superi- 
ority of Raymond piles, and of the testimonials of those who 
have made practical use of them. 

Zhc flDetbotn 

Raymond Concrete Piles are usually placed by the pile 
core method, which may be briefly described as follows: A 
collapsible steel pile core, of the desired size and shape, is en- 
cased in a thin, closely fitting sheet steel shell. The core and 
shell are driven to the required depth by means of a pile driver 
(preferably fitted with a steam hammer). The core is so con- 
structed that when the driving is finished, it is collapsed and 
loses contact with the shell, so that it is easily withdrawn, leav- 
ing the shell or casing in the ground to act as a mould for the 
concrete and to protect it from back pressure, which would 
distort the pile, and from the admixture of foreign matter 
which would destroy the bond of the concrete. 

When the core is withdrawn, the shell is filled with care- 
fully mixed Portland cement concrete, which is carefully 
tamped during the filling process. 


Fig. 3. Pile core collapsed and partly withdrawn from the shell. The 
shell remains in the ground and forms a mould for the concrete, assuring a 
perfect pile. 

Fig. 4. A completed Raymond Concrete Pile, without reinforcement. 

points of Superiority 

Raymond Concrete Piles are superior to any other concrete 
piles for the following reasons: 

(i) A shell or form is used for every pile. This form can 
be easily inspected before the concrete is deposited and assures 
perfection in each pile. 

(2) Raymond piles are of a size and shape to develop the 
greatest possible bearing value. 

(3) They can be easily reinforced. 

(4) They can be more rapidly placed than any other con- 
crete piles. 

(5) There is no driving on the concrete and therefore no 
possibility of fracture. 

Gbc Sfoell. 

We are pleased to note the growing appreciation among 
Engineers and Architects of the importance of the shell or 
form, the employment of which, to protect the concrete from 
the back pressure of the material penetrated and to exclude 
all foreign matter, is the distinctive feature of the Raymond 
System. It is now almost universally recognized that the use 
of this shell is of the utmost importance and cannot be too 
greatly emphasized. It is the feature which makes the Ray- 
mond pile the ONE concrete pile that can be depended 
upon absolutely to meet the most severe requirements. It is 

No careful Engineer or Architect will permit green concrete 
to be placed in quicksand, silt, soft mud or any porous or un- 

stable material without the protection of a form. It is of still 
greater importance that it be protected when placed below the 
surface of the ground where the pressure is often very great. 

Attempts have been made to construct concrete piles in 
place in the ground without using a protecting form, and while 
in a few cases, where the soil was particularly good, no bad 
results have been apparent, in all too many other cases such 
attempts have been disastrous and have resulted in heavy 
pecuniary loss as well as loss of time. It is not enough to know 
that a quantity of concrete equal to the cubic capacity of the 
hole made has been deposited therein; for it has been dem- 
onstrated by excavating piles so made that they are often of 
widely varying diameter, due to the unequal pressure of the 
different strata of soil displaced— the diametric measurements 
of such piles varying in some cases from three feet to five or 
six inches. This variation, which in most soils is inevitable 
when no form is used as a protection against the unequal pres- 
sures, is likely to be still further accentuated by the driving of 
a closely contiguous pile. Failure to secure uniform results 
cannot occur where a shell or protecting form is used, as this 
shell is of sufficient strength to withstand the soil pressure 
when the core is withdrawn and, when filled with concrete, to 
withstand the additional pressure caused by driving adjacent 

Gbc Capcrimi Shape. 

Our varied experience has confirmed the contention that 
for most foundation work large, tapering piles are the best and 
most economical. Where piling is necessary the soil is usually 
poor— often the best stratum is that on or near the surface. 
In most soils large, tapering concrete piles, 18" or 20" in diam- 

eter at the top and 6" or 8" in diameter at the point, are very 
much more effective than straight piles of greater length; par- 
ticularly where a comparatively hard stratum is underlaid by 
softer material. In New York City, 25-foot tapering piles were 
found to be equal to 40-foot piles of uniform diameter. At 
Salem, Mass., 20-foot piles, tapering from 20" at the top to 6" 
at the bottom, developed greater bearing value than 35-foot 
piles with less taper and larger point. In New Orleans, 20-foot 
piles of the size just mentioned were found to be equal to 50 
and 60-foot wooden piles, which, while large, were nearly 
straight. At Boston, a pile 20 feet in length, 20" at the top, 
and 6" at the bottom, while it required a less total number of 
blows to drive, offered more final resistance than a 20-foot pile 
of the same length, 18" at the top and 13" at the point. The 
explanation of this is simple and obvious. It lies in the fact 
that in the case of a tapered pile the load is more uniformly 
distributed throughout Us entire length, while in that of a 
straight pile it is largely concentrated upon the limited area of 
the point. Thus, where a pile penetrates the hard stratum 
lying near the surface and into the softer underlying material, 
the bearing value of this upper stratum is fully developed by 
the large, tapering wedge-shaped pile, while it would be almost 
lost with the pile straight, or nearly so. 

Ease of "Reinforcement 

The reinforcement of concrete piles by steel rods is some- 
times found to be desirable for certain uses. This is always a 
simple matter with the Raymond System. Whether the shell 
or casing, which is always used, is jetted into place or driven, 
the insertion of the reinforcing material is done when the 

concrete is put in, and is simple, is in plain sight, and requires 
no unusual skill. 

Saving of Ctmc* 

The question of time is always an important one in build- 
ing construction. Raymond piles can unquestionably be placed 
more rapidly than any other concrete piles, as when the shell 
is driven the core is easily and quickly withdrawn, and the 
driver turned to drive another shell while the one already 
driven is being filled. As compared with wooden piles the 
economy of time is very considerable, as a much smaller num- 
ber of piles is required, and the time required to do the expen- 
sive excavating, sheeting and pumping, as well as to put in 
additional masonry, is saved. 

As rapidity of work is always more or less governed by 
local conditions, such as the character of the soil to be pene- 
trated, and the length and spacing of the piles, it is not possible 
to give accurate figures suitable to all conditions of work. 
Depending upon these conditions, the number that can be put 
in with one driver may vary from ten to forty per day. 

Zbc ©riving. 

Numerous attempts have been made to build and afterward 
drive the actual concrete pile. But these attempts have met 
with only a limited success. Such piles require in their manu- 
facture heavy reinforcement with steel rods, which makes them 
expensive, and when driven they cannot stand a hard blow of 
the hammer without fracture. Under the Raymond System 
there is no driving 01 the concrete. A steel pile core, carrying 
a sheet-metal shell, is driven as described on page 5; the core 


is then withdrawn, and the shell afterward filled with concrete, 
which sets or hardens in place. 


As Raymond Concrete Piles are made where they are used, 
their cost varies, depending upon the cost of transporting 
machinery to the site, the availability of material, the character 
of the soil to be penetrated, the number and spacing of the piles, 
and the general labor conditions of each locality. 

While concrete piles necessarily cost more per lineal foot 
than wooden piling, the economy in the use of concrete piles as 
against wooden piles is very considerable. It is due, first, to 
the much smaller number of concrete piles required to carry 
the necessary load, one concrete pile having, on account of its 
great size and taper, practically the carrying capacity of three 
ordinary wooden piles of the same length ; and, secondly, to 
the great saving of excavation, sheeting, pumping and ma- 
sonry so generally required where wooden piles are used. 

The illustrations on pages 12, 13 and 14 show very fully the 
saving effected. 

As to the economy in the use of Raymond Concrete Piles, 
we refer to the letters of Architects contained in this catalogue. 
In the work done for the United States Naval Academy at An- 
napolis, a saving of more than $27,000 was made over the 
estimated cost of a foundation using wooden piles according 
to the original plan. For a detailed statement showing the 
comparative cost of wood and concrete pile foundations for 
this work, see the article by Mr. W. R. Harper, reproduced on 
the last pages of this catalogue. 

1 1 

C0 CONrR S |?T N |r °m, r Ordinary wooden piles average about 12 inches in diametnr at the top 

with woonFN p.. p I h ? e m square inches of surface - Concre1e P j,es - 20 inches - 

WITH WOODEN PILE d.ameter at the top. have 314 square inches of surface, or 2.77 times 
three or ft.„r S-^U- f that of the wooden pile. The taper of a wooden pile is only about 

The ,h V .1 / * r ° m " , 0t1 ° m - WhHe tKe Uper ° f thC C00Creie P i,e is from 10 to 14 inches. 

oiJ Thr«h'l U * g 'T 3 fa "* reDresen ' a "° n 0^ what may be saved by the use of concrete 

■ nches Ih?| Z T nC I P ' leS ; "^ 2 ° i0CheS '" dia ™^ ^ve a bearing surface of 942 square 
beards u rfJ rZ?° ? ''"' '"" 12 mCheS la diameter wh ' ch is a fair average . have a 

w^^jl square .nches. Note the additional concrete on top of fhe wooden 

slrv to d -veThl M e ' 0W r teHine *° mSUPe their P^ ma «ncy. It is also frequently neces- 

sary to dnve sheet around the trenches in order to make the excavation to water line 


























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Comparison of t>eafc Surfaces 

On account of its great taper the Raymond Concrete Pile 
has a marked advantage in point of economy over all other 
piles, whether concrete or wood. The following comparison 
of the head surfaces of piles of different diameters will be of 
interest : 

Head Surface. 

One 20-inch Raymond Pile .314.16 sq. in. 

One 18-inch Raymond Pile 254.47 " " 

One 10-inch pile 78.54 " " 

Four 10-inch piles . 314.16 " " 

One 12-inch pile . 113.09 " " 

Three 12-inch piles 339-27 " " 

One 14-inch pile 153-93 " " 

Two 14-inch piles 307.86 " " 

One 16-inch pile 201.06 " " 

Three 16-inch piles 603.18 " " 

Two 20-inch piles 628.32 " M 

It will be noted that a 20-inch Raymond pile has 314.16 
square inches head surface, or the same head surface as FOUR 
10-INCH PILES, while a 12-inch pile has but 113.09 square 
inches, a 14-inch pile but 153.93 square inches, and a 16-inch 
pile but 201.06 square inches. It will be seen further that three 
12-inch piles have but 339.27 square inches of head surface, or 
only 25.11 square inches more than one 20-inch Raymond pile; 
that two 14-inch piles have but 307.86 square inches, or 6.30 
LESS than one 20-inch Raymond pile; and that three 16-inch 
piles have but 603.18 square inches, or 25.14 square inches 
LESS head surface than two 23-inch Raymond piles. 


5tanfrart> Siscs. 

The dimensions of the standard sizes of concrete piles 
placed by the pile core method are as follows: 

20 ft. long, 20 inches at the top and 6 inches at the point 

25 " " 20 8 ' 

30 " 20 8 

35 " " 18 8 M • 

40 " " 18 8 

Where rock or hardpan is overlaid by a stratum of soft or 
unstable material and a pile must be considered as a column, 
it is. of course, desirable that the point be larger than where 
the pile depends upon frictional resistance to carry the load. 
For such uses we have designed cores more nearly straight 
and are, therefore, prepared to accomplish the best possible re- 
sults under . ndition which may be encountered. 

For all ore ^ndation work, where it is not required 

to go to rock or hardpan. the experience of the Raymond Con- 
crete Pile Company has demonstrated that it is preferable to 
use the 20-foot length, and 1: necessary to increase the number 
Of piles, rather than to increase their length, the shorter pile 
having a greater bearing value per lineal 
foot of piling than the longer pile. Under such conditions three 

er bearing capacity than two 30-foot 

Carrying Capacity 

We are often asked to state just what load may safely be 
placed on a Raymond Concrete Pile. It is manifestly impos- 
sible to furmsh a table accurately showing the carrying capa- 
city of piles, as the soil is not exactly the same in any two 
places. All tests which we have made, or which have been 
made by Architects and Engineers on our work, indicate, how- 
ever, that from two to three times as much can be placed upon 
a Raymond Concrete Pile as upon an ordinary wooden pile of 
the same length under the same conditions. The article in the 
Engineering Record of March 4, 1905, by Mr. Walter R. 
Harper, Chief Inspector of the work at the new Naval Acad- 
emy at Annapolis, which is reproduced on the last pages of this 
catalogue, bears on this point. 


Obviously, it is not possible to make fixed or standard prices 
for Raymond Concrete Piles, as the cost varies widely accord- 
ing to the conditions in each particular case; and so necessary 
is a knowledge of such conditions in making estimates, that 
we refrain from giving any figures here, even in a general way. 
We are always glad, however, to furnish plans for foundations 
with Raymond Concrete Piles, upon receipt of the general 
foundation plans, with complete data as to soil conditions, 
loads to be carried, etc. We will also, upon request, send a 
representative anywhere at any time, at our own expense, to 
figure on prospective work. 



The necessary equipment for constructing concrete piles 
by the Raymond Pile Core Method consists of the following: 

i. A strongly built pile driver, having a spread between 
the leaders of not less than 22 1 2 ". and preferably fitted with 
turn-table, extension leaders and steam hammer. 

2. A pile core of the size and length necessary for the work 
in hand. 

3. Sheet steel for making shells — usually No. 20 gauge, al- 
though No. 18 gauge is sometimes used. 

l. A heavy cornice brake for forming the sheet steel, to- 
gether with the usual complement of shears, mallets, etc., for 
cutting and seaming the same. 

Specifications for Kapmonfc Concrete piles. 

We are frequently requested by Architects and Engineers 
who wish to be certain of securing satisfactory concrete pile 
work, to submit a specification for Raymond piles. If "Ray- 
mond Concrete Piles" are called for, this is, of course, suffi- 
cient. If, however, it is for any reason undesirable to name 
them specifically, the following points should be covered: 

The use of a shell or form which remains in the ground, 
which is of sufficient strength and rigidity to withstand the 
back pressure of the soil after the driving form has been with- 
drawn, and which can be easily inspected to ascertain its con- 
dition before the concrete is placed in it. 

No driving on the concrete. 

Proportions for concrete : One part good Portland cement, 
three parts sharp sand, and five parts crushed stone or gravel 
which will pass a 1 : 2 " ring. 


Concrete to be thoroughly mixed and carefully tamped in 
the shells as they are rilled. 

Among those who have used Raymond Concrei are 

the following : 

an, Archil ^ Q 

rkins, Architect, Marquetl , ag o. 

Vv. a. Otis, Arch m si . Chicago. 

g, Architect, to Wall Si . Nev 
A. C. Cunningham, Civil Engineer, U S N M . 

ton, D. C. 

& R. M. Shankland, Engine* i, The Rookery. Ch 
ton & Miller, Architects, Hartford Bl I lgo . 

Richards, McCarty A Bulford, Architects, Ruggery i 
Columbus, Ohio. 

irence Ewald, Architect, 417 Pin< Mo. 

J. Yard, Chiei Engineer, Den ,.. n _ 


Esenwein & Johnson. Architects. Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, N V 
Jenney. Mundie A Jensen. Architects. New York 


W. H. Lester. Engineer, Guli Bag Co., New Orlea 

MacKenzie & Goldstein. Architects, New OrU 

P. A. Burden. Engineer, 19 W. 34th St., New York C 

I abb. Cook A Willard, Archta . New 

York City. 

P. Royce, Vice-Pres. Maiden A Meli n Co., 


Ballinger & Perrot. Architects, Twelfth and Chestnut Sts., 

Barnett, Haynes & Barnett. Architects. St. Louis, Mo. 

John Latenser, Architect, Bee Building, Omaha, Nebr. 

Wm. Garstang, Sup. M. P. Big Four Ry., Indianapolis, Ind. 

A. F. Groves, Architect, St. Louis, Mo. 

Chas. S. Churchill, Chief Engineer, N. & W. Ry., Roa- 
noke, Va. 

Chas. R. Coates, Engr. Belknap Hdw. & Mfg. Co., Louis 
vide, Ky. 

Wm. F. Twining. Chief Engr. Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Co., Philadelphia. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect, New York City. 

H. P. Padley, Engineer. C. St. P. M. & O. Ry., St. Paul, 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. St. Louis, Mo. 
Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co.. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
South Buffalo Ry. Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Abbot-Gamble Co.. 32 Broadway, New York City. 
Isaac A. Hopper & Son. Johnston Bldg., New York City. 
F. L. Dame, General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
B. E. Holden, Architect. 175 Dearborn St., Chicago. 
W. H. Wells, Engr. of Const. Southern Ry., Washington 
D. C. 

City Water Department. St. Louis, Mo. 
F. S. Howell. Civil Engineer, Ellis Island, N. Y. 
West Jersey & Sea Shore R. R. (Pennsylvania System), 
Westville, N. J. 


Raymond Core md Shell \ driven for every pile and left 

in the ground to form a perfect mould for the Concrete. 

Raymond Pile Core encased in shell, ready to be driven. 


Raymond Pill e will be withdraw! 

Shell Bill , crete Thl shell make bit to sec that 

the hole >ne, thus insuring a perfect 

pile N 










new york May 24,1905. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams Street, 
Chicago, 111. 
Dear sirs:- 

In regard to the concrete piles, which you 
drove for us in the foundation of the Academic Group 
of buildings at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, 
Maryland, we are very willing to bear testimony to the 
saving in labor, time and money due to the substituting 
of concrete piles for wooden piles in these f oTindations. 

The original plans called for 2200 wooden 
piles cut off below low water with a capping of concrete - 
about 3300 cubic yards- to bring the foundations to grade. 
To get down to the low water level required sheet 
piling, shoring and pumping and the excavation of nearly 
5000 cubic yards of earth. 

By substituting your concrete piles the work 
was reduced to driving 850 concrete piles, excavating 
1000 cubic yards of earth and placing 1000 cubic yards 
of concrete. 

A comparison of quan+itieB will give at a 
glance the saving in time and money achieved. The piles 
stood the severe test of the U. S. Government officials 
without the slightest indication of failure. 

The foundations as built are eminently 
satisfactory to us, to the Architect and to the TJ. S. 

Government officers. 

Yours truly, 

John Peirce Company. 

(O^uiX^ 2 ^^^ 



A trench of ^y-ond Concrete Piles for the wall of the Crunden-Marti: 
woodenware Company's warehouse, St, Louis, Mo. 



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Chemical Builoin*, 


margy St Louis 

May 23rd, 1905. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Company 

135 Adans Street, Chicago. 
Tear Sirs;-- 

We take great pleasure in expressing to you our apprecia- 
tion of the utility, effectiveness and structural character and 
quality of your concrete pile work Installed at the Crunden-Mar- 
tin Woodenware Company's new plant in this city. We have done 
considerable pile work in St. Louis and have found nothing which 
so thoroughly fits local conditions a, your concrete pile. 

We take pleasure m expressing also our appreciation of 
your courtesy and willingness to assist in overcoming difficul- 
ties. We deem the use of your piles effects a considerable sav- 
ing over otner similar forms of construction and the entire eye- 
tem has our commendation. 

Very truly yours, 



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Klotz Bldg. 

Chic ago, Vay 22,1905 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co. 
Gentlemen: - 

Complying with your verbal request of today, we 
take pleasure in expressing our views in writing, of the concrete 
piles at the Klotz Bldg: 7/hen we first considered foundations for 
this building, we were faced with the bad condition of the soil 
which was Y^ry wet and soft and contained considerable quick sand. 
Inasmuch as it was unnecessary to put in a basement, we felt that 
it would be economy to use your concrete piles, which was done with 
economy and satisfactory results. 

Yours respectfully, 














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May 19th, 1905. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 
135 Adams St. , 

Chicago, 111. 
Gentlemen: - 

+~~* Replyin- to your inquiry of the 13th, would aav, it af- 

in 2«^ U f Ple f Ur L t0 / tate ' tJiat the concrete'piling you* put 
In for us under the foundation of the Kid ridge & Hifpins 

S2t?SSl; ft : ar ? h0UM at Narietta > Ohio > has p?o T en perfectly 
satisfactory in every respect. 

this h»iiH?nrrrt*S 0nfront * ed W ? en We beGan thR construction of 
rat^ on ?<?? ^ th a I 6ry serious Proposition. It was lo- 
cated on filled ground over what had formerly been a swamp. 

™.,?° U * n0t * U f! wo , od ? illn S on account of the fact that we 
could not get it below the water level. After careful in- 
llllHt XOn T C0 ;? 1 S ded t0 ^ your piling and the resul? has 
£???^ £f nely satl3fac J°ry. We consider that the use of ^our 
ilh«SJJT d U8 f l6a3t $30 °° in concret e work. The build- 
ing has been in use for several months, is heaviir loaded and 
there is not the least indication of a' set tlemlnt? in anfp^t 

»»h J*o a iX 0Ue ? ^ 0Ut ° ne haIf of the fining is on piling 
and the other half on solid ground outside of "the limits of 

Sat Jiin e v, a 3 + i% SWa !? P Vi SOl i' We conRider ^iB even a better 
test than had the foundation been uniform over the entire area. 

f<e shall bear you in mind for future work and if 
to do^so 6 ° r any service to you at an - v tira © we would be glad 

Yours very truly, 

Richards, Mccarty & btjlford. 


CER/C . 



Statler Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y. Esenwein & Johnson. Architects. Built 
on Raymond Concrete Piles. See letter on page 39. 




Sept. 29, 1906, 
Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams Street, 

Chicago, 111. 
Gent lemon ;- 

It gives us great pleasure to answer your letter of 
Sept. 21st. 

You have given great satisfaction to the architects, 
to the owner and to the general contractors in performing your work 

Yo^r system is without any question an excellent one, and 
we would gladly recomrneni the same to any one you refer to us. 

Sfou had to work under a great disadvantage here, owing to 
shaky buildings in the neighborhood, and the nature of the ground, 
and many other things, and we thank you, therefore, that you have 
not tried to take advantage of the situation and charge any extras, 
although you have lost a great deal of tisw in waiting. 

Respectfully youk-s;. 




























































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Power station of the Union Electric Company, Dubuque Stack rests 

upon fifty 20-ft. Raymond Concrete Piles. 518 Raymond Piles 

under the building. E. C. & R. M. Shankland, Engineers. 


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• i Concrete File Co. , 
Chicago, Hi, 

I have copy of letter from Gulf Bag Co. New Orleans, 
in which you ask for testimonial regarding your tapering pile/ J 
take pleasure In saying that we believe your pile is far superior 
to any other concrete piles, we also, believe it is the best pile 
for New Orleans soil generally. The large taper of your pile gives 
the best possible form for obtaining the carrying capacity required, 
and we recoiaraend it in preference to all others. 

Yours truly, 




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Sptcialists m iht Drugging 
#/ Industrial Plants. Rein- 
forced Ctntrttt Firr-Prmf 
Buildings, Initttutitnal 


«— — ■ FORMERLY HALES Ac BALUNGER — — ~~~-. »- . 

!3rci;ttrct6 anfc gnginrrrs I 

Southwest Cor. Chestnut and Twelfth Streets Jm Both Phone? 

Philadelphia. sept. 27, 1906. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 

135 Adarr.s St., Chicago, 111. 

V?e congratulate you upon the promptness with which you 
have executed your work of putting In shout thirty -four hundred 
lineal feet of Raymond Concrete Files for the foundations of the 
Laundry BjiMing for G. L. Hooper and Son, Salem, Mass. For con- 
ditions such as existed at this building, where good bearing soil 
was at a considerable distance below the su rface, we believe that 
piles of this type are the most economical and durable for the 
purpose that ould be used. 

Ycurs truly. 





O ~ 

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£ o 

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*»-8* WALL BTP 

Cass Gilbert, 


st. paul Feb. 27, 1906. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams 3t . , 

Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sirs:- 

taring your letter .f February 6th, in reference to Raymond 
concrete piles used in the Essex Building, this city, would say that 
they have served the purpose admirably. I consider them very useful 
in a case such as ours where the ground is soft and the water level 
considerably below the bottom of footings. The saving of time and ex- 
pense was no small Hem, their form and size making fewer piles nec- 
essary and thereby reducing the danger to adjacent buildings, some of 
which were in rather a shaky condition. I am glad of the experience 
obtained in their use and would use them again under similar circum- 

Yours truly, 

; Gilbert ^^^ 
per tr—Zj*^ 



Boiler House and Stack for Maiden & Melrose Gas Light Co., Maiden, 
Mass. Built on Raymond Concrete Piles. 




Residence of Duncan Joy, Esq., St. Louis. Mo. Laurence Ewald. 
Architect. Sec letter on page 59. 



17 P>Nl ST«WCT 

St. Louis, Oct. 11th, 06. 
Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 
125 Adams 3t . , 

The concrete pile foundation which you put in the 
residences in Lenox Place of Duncan Joy and Lee Benoist are sat 
isfactory in every way. *hey cost only half as much as the con 
Crete or stone foundations carried to solid earth of similar 
residences in the same location. 

Yours truly 



Residence of Lee Benoist, Esq., St. Louis. Mo Laurence Ewald, 
Architect. See letter on page 59, 




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A mi ku an Chishki) S tove ( o 
Crushed Limestone 

( Kl MlllldHAMrKA.VDl'AVINt.MtTIHUI § 

Street Paving Contractors 

92 L*. SallC Street 


November 19th, 1900 , 

Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 

135 Adams St., City. 
Gentlemen :- 

With reference to your inquiry aB to the ooncrete dock put in 
by your Company at our plant early last Winter, we are pleased to say 
that we are thoroughly satisfied with it in every particular. 

In our opinion it is vastly superior to the heaviest wooden 
piling because It combines at least equal strength with imperishability. 

The work was well executed and has fulfilled both our 
expectations and your representations. 

Very truly yours, 


S^y S( '"A—— - •^President. 



II r M i 
W ll 



United States Naval 




Inspector in Charge of the Academic Group, U. S. 
Naval Academy. 

[Reprinted from the I '. March 4. 1935. 

Concrete Piles at the United States 
Naval Academy. 

RPER, Inspector in charge 
Academic I 

After the value of an efficient navy 
was made evident by the war with 
Spain, Congress made appropriations, 
from time to time, amounting to $10,- 
000,000 to rebuild the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis, 'Sid. The plans of Mr. 
Ernest Flagg, architect, of New York, 
were selected for the new academy. 
These plans contemplated a new 
wall, armory, seamanship building, 
midshipmen's quarters, gymnasium, 
hospital, chapel, officers' quarters, offi- 
cers' mess building, steam engineering 
building, power house and academic 


demic group, the foundat 

his article, 
consists of the library building, of g 
ite and brick. 

ith a central tower about 
140 ft. in height containing a 
dom< nomical v. 1 1 

side of the libr 

the pi d chemistry building 

on the other the academic 

grat ■ 
brick and nearly of th< 

height ai 

the largest buildings in the 
country devoted to educational pur- 

The soil on the site of the physics and 
chemistry buili f such a nature 

that piles were not required, but they 
were under both the library 

and academic buildings, a portion of 
this land : - een reclaimed from 

the Severn River by filling with sand 
and mud thr»-< 

years pre\ 
foundat i< 

Certain amounts of the appropriation 


When the bids for the a ^roui> 

the lowest, that of John 

Pierc* rk, was found 1 

exceed the $1,500,000 allotted for the 

ip, and some method had to be re- 

iuld reduo 

and still preser neral plans of 

Ceo ^ j^j. 




p 00 

r the 

000. ' d will 

u ith wait r. it 

i the 
p< tinl 
the bi Wit h coi 

the walli 


[or a concrete beam thick enough f o 

carry the weight of the building. 

This difference in thicl con- 

ings i- well illustrated 
n oi the footings of the academic 
building v ith w i m >d piles and the 
section as redesigned and built with 
concrete piles. This sa> ng in excava- 
tion and footings depends upon the 
height of the building above mean low 
water. At the Naval Academy the rise 
and fall of the tide in the Severn River 
i- very slight, consequently the build- 
ings have been placed only a few feet 
in low water. Notwithstand- 
ing that the cost per lineal foot for con- 
crete piles far exceeds that of wood 
pile-. a bout four times as much. 

the saving in the entire foundation by 
their use will surprise the uninitiated, 
as will be seen by a glance at the cuts 
shown here. 

In the accompanying diagrams 
section E-F shows the footing of the 
connection between the library and aca- 
demic building as designed by Mr. 
Flagg for wood pile-. Another sketch 
shows the same section, G-H in the dia 
gram, as built with concrete piles. The 
depth of footing on this section was 
reduced from ; ft. to 2 ft. 8 in., and the 
width on the bottom from 12 ft. 1 in. to 
5 ft. 2 in. The area of the cross-s' 


K - * i Concrete 

vertical Section E-F 

ton Lo* 
J Water 



m i?Sqrt 

j Megnlow Water 

vert cai Section CrH 

was reduced from 58 to 12 sq. ft. In the 
plan of the wood piles under the library 
r there are 202 piles in a rectangle 
38 ft. 5 1-3 in. square. The plan of the 
same tower foundations with 84 
crete piles has footings 8 ft. 2 in. wide. 

With wood piles n will be noticed 

nd footings extend over 

the entue rectangle, while with con- 

piles i Ik- piles and footings are 
"iil\ 8 ft. 2 in. wide and directly under 
the walls of the tower. The depth 31 
the footing was reduced by the use of 
concrete piles from 10 ft. 1 1-2 in. to 4 
it. 7 1-3 in. Twenty-seven 12-in. 31 1-2- 
tb. I-beams were done away with. 

The following reductions on the 
foundations of the two buildings were 
made by the use of concrete piles: 2,193 
wood piles were replaced by 885 con- 
crete piles; 4.542 yd. of excavation 

reduced to 1,038 yd., saving 3.504 
yd., and 3.250 yd. of concrete footings 
were reduced to 986 vd., saving 


With wood piles, after excavating 
mean low water, shoring and pumping 
would have been necessary in aU 
trenches, and this saving was estimated 
at $4,000. A schedule of changes show- 
ing the saving by the use of concrete 
en in Table I. 

Table I.— Comparative cost of v 

\\|. I 0K( KKTE PILES. 

• . piles il - - 335.50 

1,542 n •• .40 

50 •' concrete " 8.00 


Shoring tnd pumping 

208 88 



piles .. a1 $20 00 $17 L00.00 

l,038«u v. I exc'vtn 10 415.00 

■ concrete 3.00 7,888.00 

Shoring and pumping 

,.,.t. $25,4 03.00 

Difference in cos1 $27,458.18 

The saving in the cost of foundations 
by the use of concrete piles was $27,- 
458 [8, or more than half of the original 

of the foundations as de-i. 
w ith wood piles. 

The estimate of length of wood piles 
was taken from the length of wood piles 
driven in the marine engineering build- 
in-, a structure about 200 ft. from the 
library site. Wood piles would have been 
required 40 ft. in length at a cost of 20 


$q>5/'_ __ sinaiu 

I7'2§" >| ^V-- 1 -- f7'2§* ihen 

/ l i t j ^-" ■ ^ ^ ther 

\ " * \ 'J are 

\ . 4 . ' f-lr drawn up 

-\3eams around the 

b< en on 
driven 30 ft. below mean low 
r. which at 5 1 

1 an average cost of $9.50 per pile. 
For the estimate for 1 
was assumed that the entire site \ 
• an elevation of 7 ft. above mean low 
r. which is an avei 
tig conditions. 
The longest concrete pile driven 
29.7 ft., but owing to the solid nature 
of the soil at the southerly end of the 
library building, where shorter piles 
were used, the average length was 16 
ft., and the cost of the concrete piles 
was taken at $20 per pile. 

The concrete pile selected was that 
of the Raymond Concrete Pile Co., of 
Chicago. It 
is conical in 
shape, run- 
ning from 6 
in. in diam- 
eter at the 
bottom to 20 
in. at the top. 
Owing to 
shape the 

■nd is compacted and a much shorter 
pile can be used with this style than 
with a cylindrical pile. The difference 
in bearing power between a conical and 
cylindrical pile was shown by an e> 
ment tried on this work at the Naval 
Academy. A Raymond pile core tapered 
from 6 in. at the point to 20 in. at the 
head, was driven 19 ft. until the penetra- 
tion under two blows from a 2.100-fb 
hammer falling 20 ft. was 7-8 in. A wood 
pile 9 1-2 in. at the point and 11 in. . 
head and having the same length. 19 ft., 
as the conical pile, had a penetration of 

5 5-i6 in. under two blows of the same 
hammer, falling 20 ft. This pih 
driven after the concrete pile and a 

2 ft. from it. thus showing the compara- 
tive bearing power between a conical 
and a cylindrical pile of the same lei 
These piles of the Raymond sty) 
driven by the use of a hollow 

6 in. in diameter at the point and 2 

at the head. The . ,\ on th]S 

the core are spread 
and held in place during the drivin 

>re is held b 
leads of the pile driver by -teel pi 

ti< 'I to 11- top, winch form guides to 
slide in tin heads. The top of the 

is protected by a hard wood cap 
■ h sets in a cavity made for n 
This block receive- th< the 

hammer and has to row 

time to tune. 
The she< | on 

rork in an extra heavy cornice brake 
machine, and are made in 8-1: 
with locked seam-. Th< 
telescoped, the point of 
raised about 8 ft. and 11 



Timber Pifes 


: . 

■coin Low Wafer / - 

vertical Section A- 8 

core by a 

the hoist-ng 
engine . n 

the di 
Two drivers were used on the work at 
the Naval Academy, one with a 2,240 lb 
drop hammer and the 
hammer of the Vulcan m 
3,000 tbs. The steam hammer 

rapidh. I partly dm | 

that the steam hammer v, ,j n 

a turn-table, and was able to turn 
circle by n- own power. I 
vided with an extension inch 

the core could be ra ,\ [f 

in a trench below I 
firsl piles were driven until tw< 
blows with the -team hammei 

n of 1 in. Tin- nr ] to 

on ill- 51 and 

later t 
was u 
perifetn e j gnl 

1 ration of 1 in 
\\ h< nil. 
mer was brought on tl m- 

ns had to be mad< the 


blows of the two hammers, so that the 
cores would be driven to the same pene 
tration, to give an equal bearing for all 
parts of the building. A c< >re was dm en 
with the steam hammer until the pene- 
tration with eight blows was i in. This 
core was detached from the leads of the 
steam hammer and left standing in the 
ground; then the driver with the drop 
hammer was moved up and four blows 
from the 2,240-fb. hammer falling 20 ft. 
was f, >und to drive 

Wh- 8'2" r 


Mean tow Wot+er 

it 1 in., or a p< ne 
tration oi 1-4 in. 
for a blow. As 
previously stated, 
eight blows of the 
steam hammer in 
rapid succession 
drove the core 1 
in., and the con- 
clusion was 
reached that one blow of the drop ham- 
mer was equivalent to two blows of the 
steam hammer. 

The tests wen- made by loading the 
piles, and it was estimated that all piles 
with the same penetration as the test 
piles would have the same bearing 
power. A 17 1-2 ft. pile driven with a 20- 
ft. core, 6 in. in diameter at the point and 
20 in. at the head, having a penetration 
of 1 in. under twenty blows of the steam 
hammer, was loaded with 41 tons. Lev- 
els were taken during the loading and 
at intervals for one month. At the end 
of the month the total settlement was 
0.007 ft., or 3-32 in. 

Another 28 1-2-ft. pile driven with a 
30-ft. core, 6 in. at the point and 20 in. 
at the head, had a penetration of 5-16 in. 
under ten blows with the steam hammer. 
This pile was loaded with 42 tons. Lev- 
els were taken during the loading, show- 
ing a settlement of 0.002 ft., and at 
intervals for one month, showing no 
additional settlement. This pile was 
driven outside of the old sea wall in that 
portion of the land reclaimed from the 
Severn River, which had been filled with 
sand and mud three years previously. 

A test pile was driven at the northerly 
end of the building on that part of the 

Concrete Piles VTw 
Vertical Section C-D 

gn »und reclaimed from the Severn River. 
This pile was driven with a 30-ft. core a 
distance of 22 1-2 ft., having a penetration 
of r in. for eight blows with the steam 
hammer. The diameter of the pile was 
6 in. at the point and 16 in. at the head. 
It was loaded with 41 tons and had a 
settlement of 0.007 ft., or 3-32 in. Ten 
days later it showed a total settlement 
of 0.009 ft. The load was then increased 
to 45 tons, with no additional settle- 
ment, and finally it 
was increased to 
66 1-2 tons, show- 
in -j; a total settle- 
ment of 0.035 ft., 
or less than 7-16 
in. There was no 
additional settle- 
ment when the 
load was removed 
six days iater. 
Table No. 2 gives the elevations 1 
on this pile during the month the test 
was being made. 

It will be noticed that the pile rose 
about 1-8 in. when the load was re- 
moved. This difference was at first sup- 
posed to be an error in the level work, 
but was checked several times, giving 
the same result. This led to a study of 
past records on piles of other systems, 
and it was found that this rising after re- 
moving the test load had occurred 
piles in various parts of the country. It 
was assumed to be due to the elastic na- 
ture of the soil. 

In preparing the pile for a test a spike 
was grouted in the concrete top, then 
two double 12-in. I-beams were placed 
on top of the pile, leaving room enough 
between them for a level rod to be held 
on the spike. On the I-beam a platform 
was made of I2xi2-in. beams 12 ft. long, 
projecting on either side. This platform 
was loaded with chain, leaving a hole in 
the center for the level rod. An eleva- 
tion was taken on the spike before load- 
ing, and while the load was being ap- 
plied, also at intervals for a month. 
These elevations were taken from a 
nearby bench mark. 

The concrete was a 1:3:7 mixture 


with Catskill Portland cement, sand and 
1-8 to 3-4-in. gravel. The average 
neat cement Government I 
Twenty-four hours, 308 I 
ft).; 28 days, 745 lb. 

Table 2.— 1 1 Ph.e, ao 


Concrete mixture, 1:3 3 

tile head, 16 

1 in. 

>et 1 Ground 

filled with sand and mud in 1901. 

Load, Since la.^i 
Date, 1904. fcona reading. — — Toto 
Se P i 1, noon. 21 - 0.005 0X105 ft - 
5ep1 ]. 5 00 p in 31 ii.iiun 0.005 
8ep< 3 31 —0.002 0.007 
Sept. 14. .-31 - oooo o.ooT 

.... ,41 - 0.01 (107 

Ki pi 26 .... U 0.002 008 

000 0.009 

-. pi 28, l l:30a m. 50 - 0.004 0.013 

0.004 0.017 

8. p1 29 31 - 0.004 0.021 

Oct 1 863 0.010 0.081 

Oct. 4 8-035 

66!*- 8 1 

0.009 0.026 

' |6 Hi 


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